Mechanical injury simply refers to something inside or outside the body compressing or tearing a body tissue. The tissues comprising the low back are muscle, tendon/ligament, disk, nerve (spinal column and peripheral nerves) and bone (spinal vertebrae, sacrum, pelvic, hip). Compromise of any one or combination of these elements may produce pain.
Compression may occur in various ways. For example, “static loading” of the spine (e.g. prolonged sitting or standing), “long lever” activities (e.g. vacuuming or working with the arms elevated and away from the body), or spinal flexion may all cause repeated minor compressions considered daily wear and tear. [13,14] Usually, changing the direction of force on the low back/spine (e.g. walking or constantly changing position) or “unloading” (e.g. reclining) the spine improves these pains. Compression causes cell damage (cell death), producing inflammation, and pain. Inflammation may lead to appropriate or excessive amounts of scar tissue formation.
Mechanical conditions, including disk disease, arthritis and degenerative bony conditions, spinal stenosis, and fractures, may account for up to 98 percent of all low back pain cases, with the remaining ones due to internal medical disorders.
- Soft Tissue Pain: Muscles, Tendons and Ligaments
- Intervertebral Disk Conditions
- Degeneration – Arthritis
- Sacroiliac Pain
- Spinal Stenosis
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